Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

Neurology

Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disorder affecting the central nervous system, including the brain and spinal cord.

It occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the protective covering of nerve fibres called myelin. This causes inflammation and damage. This disrupts the normal flow of electrical impulses along the nerves, causing a wide range of symptom.

The exact cause is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. MS can affect people of any age, but is most commonly diagnosed in young adults.

Symptom can vary greatly and can include fatigue, difficulty walking, muscle weakness or stiffness, coordination and balance problem, sensory disturbances, cognitive changes and emotional disturbances. The course is highly variable, with some individuals experiencing mild symptom while others experience more severe disability.

There is currently no cure, but a variety of treatments and therapies are available to manage symptom, slow disease progression and improve quality of life. These may include medications to reduce inflammation, manage symptom and change the course of the disease, as well as rehabilitation therapies, lifestyle changes and support services. The treatment approach is individualized to the specific needs and circumstances of each person.

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FAQ

What is MS disease?

It is a chronic autoimmune disease affecting the central nervous system. It causes inflammation and damage to the protective covering of nerve fibres, disrupting normal communication between the brain and the rest of the body.

What are MS disease symptoms?

Fatigue
Muscle weakness
Difficulty with coordination and balance
Sensory changes (numbness, tingling, or prickling sensations)
Vision problems (blurred vision, double vision, or loss of vision)
Cognitive changes (memory problems, difficulties with concentration and attention)
Emotional changes (mood swings, depression, anxiety)
Bowel and bladder dysfunction
Speech difficulties
Sexual dysfunction
Pain (headaches, facial pain, or other types of chronic pain)
Tingling or burning sensations
Heat sensitivity (exacerbation of symptoms with exposure to heat)
Dizziness or vertigo
Tremors or involuntary muscle movements
Swallowing difficulties
Itching or prickling sensations
Weakness or fatigue in the legs
Difficulty with fine motor skills (writing, buttoning shirts, etc.)
Restless legs syndrome

Is MS disease dangerous?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic condition that can have varying levels of impact on an individual’s health and daily functioning. Although not typically considered life-threatening in itself, MS can still pose significant challenges and complications that can affect a person’s quality of life.

How does MS disease start?

The exact cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) is not yet fully understood. It is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental and immunological factors. The onset of MS may differ between individuals and typically begins in early adulthood, between the ages of 20 and 40.

Is MS disease contagious?

No, multiple sclerosis (MS) is not contagious. It cannot be spread from person to person through any contact, such as physical touch or sharing personal belongings.

How is MS disease diagnosed?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is diagnosed through a combination of medical history evaluation, neurological examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and sometimes cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. These tests help identify characteristic abnormalities in the central nervous system that are indicative of MS.

Can MS kill you?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is not considered a directly fatal disease. However, it can lead to complications that can increase the risk of death. However, with appropriate medical care and management, many individuals with MS can live a fulfilling life.

How to prevent MS disease?

There is no known way to prevent multiple sclerosis (MS) as its exact cause is unclear. However, maintaining a healthy lifestyle and avoiding smoking may be beneficial in reducing the risk or delaying its onset.

Who is most at risk of MS?

Certain factors may increase the risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), such as being female, having a family history of MS, living in certain geographical regions and being of Northern European origin. However, MS can affect individuals of any age, gender or ethnic background and the exact cause of the disease remains unclear.

What triggers MS?

The exact triggers of multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown, but it is believed to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Factors such as autoimmune response, genetic predisposition and environmental influences such as viral infections and vitamin D deficiency have been suggested as potential contributing factors to MS. However, more research is needed to fully understand the triggers of the disease.

 

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